Earlier this year the Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa at the University of Pretoria published the excellent Discussion Paper Household Environmental Conditions and Disease Prevalence in Uganda: The Impact of Access to Safe Water and Improved Sanitation on Diarrhea by Ibrahim Kasirye of the Economic Policy Research Centre in Kampala. Here’s the Abstract:
Although governments in sub-Saharan Africa have increasingly devoted more resources to water and sanitation interventions, many households in the sub-region still do not have access to safe water and improved sanitation. We utilize data from the 2005/06 Uganda National Household Survey to investigate the impacts of inadequate access to safe water and improved sanitation. In addition, we examine the cost-effectiveness of the provision of piped water by either a household connection or community standpipes, for a hypothetical poor urban town in Uganda. We find that only piped water within the household and access to private covered pit latrines significantly impact diarrhea prevalence. In addition, we examine the cost-effectiveness of the provision of piped water by either a household connection or community standpipes, for a hypothetical poor urban town in Uganda. We find that providing community standpipes results in the largest reduction in the burden of disease. Overall, our results present a targeting dilemma because, although water in Uganda is publicly provided, the construction of sanitation facilities is considered a private matter. Nonetheless, either health information campaigns, conducted to persuade households to construct personal latrines, or local government ordinances making toilet construction mandatory could go a long way toward reducing the burden of disease due to diarrhea in Uganda.
So piped water supplies (in-house connections, yard taps or public standpipes) plus good sanitation (simplified sewerage or on-site systems), depending on costs and ability/willingness to pay). Nothing new, but good to have good data from a country like Uganda.